How To Calculate Straight Line Depreciation Formula

how to calculate straight line depreciation formula

Each depreciation expense is reported on the income statement for the accounting period, and most businesses report on a 12 month accounting period. The cumulative depreciation is recorded on the balance sheet, and it displays the total depreciation amount from the date the asset was acquired to the date on the balance sheet. A double-declining balance method is a form of accelerated depreciation.If we are using Straight-line depreciation, the first and the last year of the asset’s useful life would see a half-year depreciation. After an asset has been fully depreciated, it can remain in use as long as it is needed and is in good working order. To learn how to handle the retiring of assets, please see last section of our tutorial Beginner’s Guide to Depreciation. According to the straight-line method of depreciation, your wood chipper will depreciate $2,400 every year. Purchases are generally most valuable and worth the most amount of money when they are new. Over time, the purchase loses value, and experiences depreciation. Straight line depreciation is the simplest and most often-used formula to determine the diminishing value of physical business assets over the course of their useful lives.

Double Declining Balance Depreciation Method*

While the purchase price of an asset is known, one must make assumptions regarding the salvage value and useful life. These numbers can be arrived at in several ways, but getting them wrong could be costly. Also, a straight line basis assumes that an asset’s value declines at a steady and unchanging rate. This may not be true for all assets, in which case a different method should be used. Accountants like the straight line method because it is easy to use, renders fewer errors over the life of the asset, and expenses the same amount everyaccounting period.Depreciation is a reduction of a fixed asset’s value over the time the asset is used. And with the straight line depreciation method, the asset’s value is reduced by the same amount each year until the end of its useful life. Accountants like the straight-line method because it is easy to use, renders fewer errors over the life of the asset, and expenses the same amount every accounting period. Unlike more complex methodologies, such as double declining balance, a straight line is simple and uses just three different variables to calculate the amount of depreciation each accounting period.

how to calculate straight line depreciation formula

It means that the asset will be depreciated faster than with the straight-line method. The double-declining balance method results in higher depreciation expenses at the beginning of an asset’s life and lower depreciation expenses later. To illustrate straight-line depreciation, assume that a service business purchases equipment on the first day of an accounting year at a cost of $430,000. Further, the equipment is expected to be used in the business for 10 years. At the end of the 10 years, the company expects to receive the salvage value of $30,000. In this example, the straight-line depreciation method results in each full accounting year reporting depreciation expense of $40,000 ($400,000 of depreciable cost divided by 10 years).

Straight Line Depreciation Vs Declining Balance Depreciation: What’s The Difference?

At commencement, the lessee records a lease asset and lease liability of $843,533. Because this method is the most universally used, we will present a full example of how to account for straight-line depreciation expense on a finance lease later in our article. Depreciation expense allocates the cost of a company’s use of an asset over its expected useful life. The expense is an income statement line item recognized throughout the life of the asset as a “non-cash” expense.

What is the depreciation formula?

How it works: You divide the cost of an asset, minus its salvage value, over its useful life. That determines how much depreciation you deduct each year. Example: Your party business buys a bouncy castle for $10,000.And to calculate the annual depreciation rate, we need to divide one by the number of useful life. This method is quite easy and could be applied to most fixed assets and intangible fixed assets. The straight-line depreciation method considers assets used and provides the benefit equally to an entity over its useful life so that the depreciation charge is equally annually.

Depreciation Examples

Straight line basis is popular because it is easy to calculate and understand, although it also has several drawbacks. Daniel Liberto is a journalist with over 10 years of experience working with publications such as the Financial Times, The Independent, and Investors Chronicle. He received his masters in journalism from the London College of Communication. Daniel is an expert in corporate finance and equity investing as well as podcast and video production. Note how the book value of the machine at the end of year 5 is the same as the salvage value.

  • That’s cash that can be put to work for future growth or bigger dividends to owners.
  • If it can later be resold, the asset’s salvage value is first subtracted from its cost to determine the depreciable cost – the cost to use for depreciation purposes.
  • Depreciation is a way to account for the reduction of an asset’s value as a result of using the asset over time.
  • The straight-line depreciation method is the simplest method for calculating an asset’s loss of value or in other words depreciation over a period of time.
  • It calculates how much a specific asset depreciates in one year, and then depreciates the asset by that amount every year after that.
  • Over the useful life of an asset, the value of an asset should depreciate to its salvage value.

The straight-line depreciation method is the easiest way of calculating depreciation and is used by accountants to compute the depreciation of long-term assets. However, this depreciation method isn’t always the most accurate, straight line depreciation especially if an asset doesn’t have a set pattern of use over time. This means items like computers and tablets often depreciate much quicker in their early useful life while tapering off later on in their useful life.

Overview: What Is Straight Line Depreciation?

To calculate depreciation using a straight line basis, simply divide net price by the number of useful years of life the asset has. The units of production method is based on an asset’s usage, activity, or units of goods produced. Then the depreciation expenses that should be charged to the build are USD10,000 annually and equally. This method does not apply to the assets that are used or performed are different from time to time.

how to calculate straight line depreciation formula

Over the useful life of an asset, the value of an asset should depreciate to its salvage value. It is calculated by simply dividing the cost of an asset, less its salvage value, by the useful life of the asset. This is very important because we need to calculate depreciable values or amounts. Second, once the book value or initial capitalization costs of assets are identified, we need to identify the salvages value or the scrap value of assets at the end of the assets’ useful life.Also known as straight line depreciation, it is the simplest way to work out the loss of value of an asset over time. So you would get a $20,000 asset on your property, plant and equipment line of the balance sheet, and depending on how you pay for it. You’re going to show an outflow of $20,000 for capital expenditures. So as far as depreciation goes, we’re depreciating $1,500 a year.

Double Declining Balance Method Of Depreciation

Intuit Inc. does not warrant that the material contained herein will continue to be accurate nor that it is completely free of errors when published. Salvage Value Of The AssetSalvage value or scrap value is the estimated value of an asset after its useful life is over. For example, if a company’s machinery has a 5-year life and is only valued $5000 at the end of that time, the salvage value is $5000. Determine the initial cost of the asset at the time of purchasing. Straight-line depreciation has advantages and disadvantages, and is only one of many other methods used to calculate depreciation. When you purchase an asset, you usually can’t write off the entire cost on your taxes in the year you bought it.

What is salvage value?

Salvage value is the book value of an asset after all depreciation has been fully expensed. The salvage value of an asset is based on what a company expects to receive in exchange for selling or parting out the asset at the end of its useful life.This is known as accumulated depreciation, which effectively reduces the carrying value of the asset. For example, the balance sheet would show a $5,000 computer offset by a $1,600 accumulated depreciation contra account after the first year, so the net carrying value would be $3,400. There are three other widely-accepted depreciation methods or formulas. An accelerated depreciation method that is commonly used is Double-declining balance.However, the simplicity of a straight-line basis is also one of its biggest drawbacks. Moreover, the straight-line basis does not factor in the accelerated loss of an asset’s value in the short-term, nor the likelihood that it will cost more to maintain as it gets older. The units of production method are based on an asset’s usage, activity, or units of goods produced. Therefore, depreciation would be higher in periods of high usage and lower in periods of low usage. This method can be used to depreciate assets where variation in usage is an important factor, such as cars based on miles driven or photocopiers on copies made. By estimating depreciation, companies can spread the cost of an asset over several years. The straight-line depreciation method is a simple and reliable way small business owners can calculate depreciation.Joshua Kennon co-authored “The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Investing, 3rd Edition” and runs his own asset management firm for the affluent. Ken Boyd is a co-founder of and owns St. Louis Test Preparation ( He provides blogs, videos, and speaking services on accounting and finance.Therefore, the fittest depreciation method to apply for this kind of asset is the straight-line method. And if the cost of the building is 500,000 USD with a useful life of 50 years. Calculate the estimated useful life of the asset – this is how many years the asset is expected to remain functional and fit-for-purpose. The reason they call it a straight line depreciation might become more apparent if we graph out the value of an asset in an example. Let’s pretend that you have a business and you just bought a car.You can then record your depreciation expense to the general ledger while crediting the accumulated depreciation contra-account for the monthly depreciation expense total. The straight line depreciation method ensures assets are accurately accounted for in a business’ financial statements. If you’re looking for resources to help with your finances, check out these small business accounting software and free accounting software options. In addition to straight-line depreciation, there are other methods of calculating the depreciation of an asset. Different methods of asset depreciation are used to more accurately reflect the depreciation and current value of an asset. A company may elect to use one depreciation method over another in order to gain tax or cash flow advantages.