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Canada lies somewhere between British and American usage of the degree and terminology of “doctor”. Holders of research doctorates – PhDs and similar degrees – commonly use the title “doctor”.
The MD degree is not a qualifying degree in the UK, but can be either a professional doctorate (at the same academic level as a PhD), a doctorate by thesis, or a higher doctorate, depending on the university. To be eligible for an MD degree in the UK one must already hold an entry level medical degree (for example, MBBS, MBChB, BMed, or a North American MD degree) and usually must have had at least 5 years of postgraduate training and experience. Trainee doctors are permitted to use the title Doctor once they have started their post-graduation “Foundation Programme”. The title of doctor is used for holders of doctoral degrees as well as for medical practitioners (except surgeons), dentists, and vets. The title is also used in Ireland for Catholic bishops, who are styled “The Most Reverend Dr X, Bishop of Y” on envelopes.
holders in the United States use the title of doctor in professional situations, although ethics board decisions have varied on whether this is permissible or might mislead the public into believing the lawyer was medically qualified or had a PhD. In 2011, Mother Jones published an article claiming that Michele Bachmann was misrepresenting her qualifications by using the “bogus” title Dr. based on her J.D. The article was later amended to note that the use of the title by lawyers “is a (begrudgingly) accepted practice in some states and not in others”, although they maintained that it was rarely used as it “suggests that you’re a medical doctor or a Ph.D.—and therefore conveys a false level of expertise”.
In Bangladesh, use of the title of Doctor (Dr.) is permitted for Ph.D. degree holders and registered medical practitioners. According to an amendment, universities are allowed to approve or reject any subject proposed for a thesis by a candidate for the degree of “Doctor” in any subject.[failed verification] For registered medical practitioners, only MBBS and BDS degree holders are allowed to use the title “Dr.” and be called “Medical Doctors”. Registered veterinary practitioners may use the title “Dr.” after earning the “Doctor of Veterinary Medicine” (DVM) degree.
dr in American English
However, Registered Homeopath practitioners also use the title “Dr.” even though, according to Homeopathic Practitioners Ordinance 1983, they are only permitted to use “Homeopath”. Currently, Physiotherapy has no separate council and no authorized act at present permits the use of the prefix “Dr.” for physiotherapist.
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What is a C short for?
a/c (plural a/cs) Abbreviation of account. a cheque marked a/c payee may not be deposited in a bank account which does not belong to the named payee. Initialism of air conditioning.
The Etiquette of To-day, published in 1913, recommended addressing letters to physicians “(full name), M.D.” and those to other people holding doctorates “Dr. (full name)”, although both were “Dr.” in the salutation and only physicians were explicitly said to include their title on their visiting card. By the 1920s there were a great variety of doctorates in the US, many of them taking entrants directly from high school, and ranging from the Doctor of Chiropractic (DC), which (at the time) required only two or three years of college-level education,[note 1] up to the PhD. The Medical Act 1858 made it illegal for anyone not qualified in medicine to use a title that implied they were. This led to prosecutions of people making unauthorised use of the title “Dr”. However, it also called into question the use of the title by licentiates of the Colleges of Physicians – all of whom were, under the new act, allowed to practice throughout the UK.
In Pakistan, the title of Doctor (Dr.) can be used by Ph.D. degree holders as well as medical, dental and veterinary doctors with MBBS, BDS and DVM degrees respectively. Usage by pharmacists and physiotherapists with PharmD and DPT degrees respectively is disputed, with the Pakistan Medical and Dental Council saying they should not use the title, but the Pharmacy Council of Pakistan (the regulatory body for pharmacists) and the Higher Education Commission permitting and encouraging its use. The title is also used by holders of PhDs and other academic research doctorates.
In the late 1960s the rising number of American law schools awarding Juris Doctor (JD) degrees led to debate over whether lawyers could ethically use the title “Doctor”. Initial informal ethics opinions, based on the Canons of Professional Ethics then in force, came down against this. The introduction of the new Code of Professional Responsibility in 1969 seemed to settle the question – in states where this was adopted – in favour of allowing the use of the title. There was some dispute over whether only the PhD-level Doctor of Juridical Science should properly be seen as granting the title, but ethics opinions made it clear that the new Code allowed JD-holders to be called “Doctor”, while reaffirming that the older Canons did not. As not all state bars adopted the new Code, and some omitted the clause permitting the use of the title, confusion over whether lawyers could ethically use the title “Doctor” continued.
In some jurisdictions, the use of the title in health care is limited to those who have both a doctorate and are licensed to practice medicine, and there is a requirement that the field of the doctorate be disclosed. Some other jurisdictions require the practitioner to hold a doctorate and to disclose the field, but make no stipulations as to licensing. Professional boards may also place limits on its use by the practitioners they regulate, e.g. requiring either a Ph.D. in psychology or a Doctor of Psychology degree to use the title while practicing as a psychologist. Some states require name badges to be worn in medical facilities giving first name, licensure status, and staff position, although these laws may not explicitly address the use of the title “Doctor”.
A/C in American English
The ISCED mapping for these degrees, developed collaboratively between the US and UNESCO, places them at master’s level. As a result, holders of MD, JD, PharmD, etc. may not be permitted to use the title of Doctor in countries such as Germany where this is strictly controlled. Although lawyers in the United States do not customarily use the title, the law degree in that country is the Juris Doctor, a professional doctorate.
- A number of medical professionals also use the title; in Ontario these are limited by law to physicians, dentists, psychologists, optometrists, chiropractors, and social workers (who hold a Doctorate in Social Work).
- Holders of research doctorates – PhDs and similar degrees – commonly use the title “doctor”.
- Canada lies somewhere between British and American usage of the degree and terminology of “doctor”.
Doctor is commonly used in the United Kingdom as the title for a person who has received a doctoral degree or, as courtesy title, for a qualified medical practitioner or dentist who does not have a doctorate. There are no restrictions on the use of the title “Doctor” in the United Kingdom, except where, in commercial advertising, it might imply that the user holds a general medical qualification. The UK government allows medical doctors and holders of doctorates to have the title recorded on the observations page of their UK passport. Until 1989, The Washington Post used the title for “practitioners of the healing arts (including chiropractors and osteopaths) but not for holders of PhDs or honorary degrees”, after which it dropped its use entirely.
Then in April of the same year, the College amended its bylaws to forbid any fellow, member, extra-licentiate or licentiate from using the title of Doctor unless they had a doctorate in medicine from a recognised university – closing the loophole the BMJ had identified. It was not until the early 20th century that this was reversed. In 1905 the Royal College of Surgeons passed a motion instructing their council “to take the necessary steps in conjunction with the Royal College of Physicians to ensure that all persons who pass the Conjoint examination shall be legally entitled to call themselves Doctors”. On this occasion the College of Physicians refused to act, but they did finally relent in 1912, removing the clause forbidding the assumption of the title of Doctor. This was described in the American press as “the British apostles of red-tape have been forced to bow to the popular will”.
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A number of medical professionals also use the title; in Ontario these are limited by law to physicians, dentists, psychologists, optometrists, chiropractors, and social workers (who hold a Doctorate in Social Work). In Alberta, Registered Nurses or Nurse Practitioners with an earned doctoral degree may use the title “doctor” in conjunction with professional practice. Some professionals earn degrees with the title of doctor but which are considered, despite their name, to be at bachelor’s-level, e.g. Regulation of the medical profession also took place in the United States in the latter half of the 19th century, preventing quacks from using the title of Doctor. However, medical usage of the title was far from exclusive, with it being acknowledged that other doctorate holders could use the title and that dentists and veterinarians frequently did.
Some sources state that AP style allows the use of Dr. for holders of non-medical doctoral degrees as long as their speciality is given. American professional doctorates are not generally considered doctoral level degrees internationally, instead being classified as bachelor’s or master’s level.
dr. in British English
What does a C stand for in banking?
abbreviation for. 1. ( Accounting & Book-keeping) account. 2. ( Accounting & Book-keeping) account current.
In 1859, the London College reversed its earlier decision, resolving “That the title of Doctor shall not be given in any official document issued from this College to any person who is not possessed of the Degree of Doctor of Medicine”. This was followed up in 1860 by new bylaws that stated “No Fellow, Member, or Licentiate of the College shall assume the title of Doctor of Medicine, or use any other name, title, designation or distinction implying that he is a Graduate in Medicine of an University, unless he be a Graduate in Medicine of an University”. In Ireland, the question of whether the license of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland granted the title of Doctor of Medicine led to a court case in 1861, with the conclusion that it did not. The British Medical Journal (BMJ) observed, however, that anyone wanting the right to the title of “Doctor” could gain it “with a five-shilling degree of Doctor of Philosophy” from abroad, or could simply assume the title, as only “Doctor of Medicine” was actually protected. In February 1876, a report recommended that the Royal College of Physicians should use the courtesy title of Doctor for all fellows and members, but this was rejected.
The American Medical Association launched a campaign in 2011 for states to adopt “truth in advertising” legislation. As a result, many states now have laws in place that protect the title of doctor when offering medical services.
According to Bangladesh Unani & Ayurvedic Practitioners Ordinance 1983, practitioners of the Unani system are called “Tabib” or “Hakim” and are strictly prohibited from using the title “Dr.”; similarly, practitioners of Ayurvedic system are called “Vaid” or “Kabiraj” and are also strictly prohibited from using “Dr.”. Currently, medical practitioners having MBBS degree or dental surgeons having BDS are legally permitted to use “Dr.” prefix. Using “Dr.” for other medical practitioners remains controversial. Medical students in the UK normally complete a course of study leading to the degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, BMBS or MBChB).