If you’re a small business owner, you know that borrowing money is both inevitable and essential. You need working capital to get your business off the ground or grow it to new heights. A free Google Sheets DCF Model Template to calculate the free cash flows and present values and determine the market value of an investment and its ROI. Follow the steps below to calculate the cost of debt using Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets. In the next section, you have examples of how to calculate the before-tax and after-tax cost of debt using spreadsheet software. Using the “IRR” function in Excel, we can calculate the yield-to-maturity (YTM) as 5.6%, which is equivalent to the pre-tax cost of debt.

- The effective interest rate is defined as the blended average interest rate paid by a company on all its debt obligations, denoted in the form of a percentage.
- The Cost of Debt is the minimum rate of return that debt holders require to take on the burden of providing debt financing to a certain borrower.
- This typically involves a loan, a merchant cash advance, or invoice financing, among other things.

The question here is, “Would it be correct to use the 6.0% annual interest rate as the company’s cost of debt? Debt and equity are two ways that businesses make money, but they are very different. While we now know that the cost of debt is how much a business pays to a lender to borrow money, the cost of equity works differently.

This value is usually an estimate, particularly if calculated using averages. The amount paid in interest expenses varies from item to item and is subject to fluctuations over time. Put simply, the cost of debt is the effective interest rate or the total amount of interest that a company or individual owes on any liabilities, such as bonds and loans. This expense can refer to either the before-tax or after-tax cost of debt.

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When your cost of debt is added to your cost of equity, the result is your cost of capital. Your cost of capital represents the total cost you pay to raise capital funds for your business. The cost of equity is the cost of paying shareholders their returns.

Capital structure deals with how a firm finances its overall operations and growth through different sources of funds, which may include debt such as bonds or loans. The effective pre-tax interest rate the business pays to service all its debts is 5.5%. As a preface for our modeling exercise, we’ll be calculating the cost of debt in Excel using two distinct approaches, but with identical model assumptions. With that said, the cost of debt must reflect the “current” cost of borrowing, which is a function of the company’s credit profile right now (e.g. credit ratios, scores from credit agencies).

Since interest on business loans can be tax-deductible, cost of debt is normally calculated after taxes are factored in. As a result, you also need to know your tax rate to calculate your cost of debt. To calculate cost of debt after your interest-based tax break, multiply your effective interest rate by your effective tax rate subtracted from one. In simplified terms, cost of debt (or debt cost) is the interest expense you pay on any and all loans your business has taken out. If you have more than one loan, you would add up the interest rate for each to determine your company’s cost for the debt. In exchange for investing, shareholders get a percentage of ownership in the company, plus returns.

The first is a loan worth $250,000 through a major financial institution. The first loan has an interest rate of 5% and the second one has a rate of 4.5%. Deskera Books is an online accounting, invoicing, and inventory management software that is designed to make your life easy. A one-stop solution, it caters to all your business needs from creating invoices, tracking expenses to viewing all your financial documents whenever you need them. The term becomes increasingly significant when you want to calculate the potential income you are expecting from the loan.

## Cost of Debt Formula and Calculation

In fact, companies and individuals may use debt to make large purchases or investments for further growth. It, therefore, becomes extremely critical to have learned about the concepts of cost of debt for the sustainability of the business. Calculating these values helps them get a farsighted view of how promising the future looks, or what measures they must take to have a good run in the field.

The current market price of the bond, $1,025, is then input into the Year 8 cell. Since the interest rate is a semi-annual figure, we must convert it to an annualized figure by multiplying it by two. Next, we’ll calculate the interest rate using a slightly more complex formula in Excel. Each year, the lender will receive $30 in total interest expense twice. We’ll now move to a modeling exercise, which you can access by filling out the form below.

## What Can Affect the Cost of Debt?

The marginal tax rate is used when calculating the after-tax rate. The best business loans are those that offer low rates, but if your personal or business credit scores aren’t high, you may not qualify for those lower interest costs. With debt equity, a company takes out financing, which could be small business loans, merchant cash advances, invoice financing, or any other type of financing.

## Cost of Debt vs. APR: What’s the Difference?

A higher debt cost indicates that the business is at a higher risk. Businesses generate equity by releasing shares for investors to buy. Each of these shareholders gains a percentage of ownership in the company by investing. The cost of equity doesn’t need to be paid back each month like the cost of debt. Instead, repayment is generated through returns on shares, like dividends and valuations.

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Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master’s in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses.

To calculate the weighted average interest rate, divide your interest number by the total you owe. This tax-rate figure represents your total rate between federal, state and local tax rates. Your results will differ depending on whether you use your effective tax rate or marginal tax rate.