# Gross Margin Formula + Calculator

We have calculated the gross margin ratio to be 70% while the unit margin is \$7. From the gross margin, it means that 70% of revenue is profit for the company. From the unit margin, it means that for each unit of soap the company sold at \$10, the company made a profit of \$7. Therefore, the 20% gross margin implies the company retains \$0.20 for each dollar of revenue generated, while \$0.80 is attributable to the incurred cost of goods sold (COGS). The gross margin represents the percentage of a company’s revenue retained as gross profit, expressed on a per-dollar basis. To interpret this ratio, you can conduct a long-term analysis of the company’s gross margin trends over time or draw comparisons between peers and the sector average.

It is a ratio that gives a snapshot of how efficiently a company is making a profit from its raw materials. Generally put, a higher gross profit margin is perceived positively in practically all industries, since the potential for higher operating margins and net profit margins increases. Since only direct costs are accounted for in the metric, the gross margin shows how much in profits remains available for meeting fixed costs and other non-operating expenses.

1. When calculating net margin and related margins, businesses subtract their COGS, as well as ancillary expenses.
2. Upon dividing the \$2 million in gross profit by the \$10 million in revenue, and then multiplying by 100, we arrive at 20% as our gross profit margin for the retail business.
3. Two such companies are Colgate-Palmolive (CL) and the Kimberly-Clark Corporation (KMB).
4. Over 1.8 million professionals use CFI to learn accounting, financial analysis, modeling and more.

The formula compares the gross profit with the net sales or revenue of the company. The gross profit is the difference between the net sales and the cost of goods sold. Note that the cost of goods refers only to the fixed and variable costs directly linked to the production of the goods like the cost of materials, labour, transportation costs, etc. Gross margin is calculated by first subtracting COGS from revenue to arrive at gross profit, and then dividing that number by revenue to determine the gross margin. That number can then be multiplied by 100 to express gross margin as a percentage. For example, a legal service company reports a high gross margin ratio because it operates in a service industry with low production costs.

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In contrast, the ratio will be lower for a car manufacturing company because of high production costs. In order to calculate it, first subtract the cost of goods sold from the company’s revenue. This figure is known as the company’s gross profit (as a dollar figure). Then divide that figure by the total revenue and multiply it by 100 to get the gross margin. Companies might also use the gross margin ratio to compare their current and previous performances. Gross margin ratio is also not ideal for comparing companies from different industries, because the cost of production varies across industries.

The Gross Margin is a profitability metric that measures the percentage of revenue remaining after deducting the cost of goods sold (COGS) incurred in the period. The gross margin and the net margin, or net profit margin, are frequently used in tandem to provide a comprehensive look at a company’s financial health. The best way to assess a company’s gross margin number is to conduct a long-term analysis of trends, comparing the company to itself, or to compare it to peers and the sector average.

Get instant access to video lessons taught by experienced investment bankers. Learn financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel shortcuts. Below is a real-life example calculation using the income statement from Procter and Gamble’s (PG) latest 10-Q filing. This can be used to make decisions related to production, pricing, efficiency, etc. However, a longer-term analysis would also be wise to ensure the trend is ongoing. You can also dive deeper, analyzing how PG compares to its top competitors.

The unit margin is defined as the difference between the selling price per unit and the cost per unit of production. Since these two metrics are vital in business, most managers are aware of them and can convert from one metric to the other. Irrespective of the differences in operating expenses (OpEx), interest expenses, and tax rates among these companies, none of these differences are captured in gross margin.

Using these figures, we can calculate the gross profit for each company by subtracting COGS from revenue. While the gross margin only accounts for a company’s COGS, the net margin accounts for COGS plus all indirect, interest, and tax expenses. It’s considered the best way to evaluate the strength of a company’s sales performance by assessing how much profit is generated compared to the costs of production.

## What Is Gross Profit Margin?

Gross margin ratio is often confused with the profit margin ratio, but the two ratios are completely different. Gross margin ratio only considers the cost of goods sold in its calculation because it measures the profitability of selling inventory. The gross margin shows how efficiently a company is making a profit from its raw materials. A high gross margin ratio means that a company is efficiently changing raw materials to finished products for profit. From the explanation, the gross profit is calculated by subtracting the total cost of production of goods from the net sales. However, a credible analysis of a company’s gross margin is contingent on understanding its business model, unit economics, and specific industry dynamics.

Over 1.8 million professionals use CFI to learn accounting, financial analysis, modeling and more. Start with a free account to explore 20+ always-free courses and hundreds of finance templates and cheat sheets. If Company ABC finds a way to manufacture its product at one-fifth of the cost, it will command a higher gross margin because of its reduced costs of goods sold.

## Gross Margin: Definition, Example, Formula, and How to Calculate

Gross profit margin is the profit after subtracting the cost of goods sold (COGS). Put simply, a company’s gross profit margin is the money it makes after accounting for the cost of doing business. This metric is commonly expressed as a percentage of sales and may also be known as the gross margin ratio. It is one of the key metrics analysts and investors watch as it helps them determine whether a company is financially healthy.

## How can a company improve its gross margin ratio?

The gross margin can also provide insights into which products and services are the most efficient to produce and sell, as well as where to make cost improvements. It’s very straightforward to calculate, providing an instant look at how much revenue a company retains after subtracting the cost of producing its goods and services. These expenses can have a considerable impact on a company’s profitability, and evaluating a company only based on its gross margin can be misleading. This shows the company is improving its profitability and efficiency, retaining more money per each dollar of revenue generated. The best way to interpret a company’s gross margin is to analyze the trends over time and compare the number to the industry and peers. The gross margin is an easy, straightforward calculation that provides insights into profitability and performance.

However, increasing the price of goods should be done competitively otherwise, the cost of the goods will be too expensive. The gross margin is an important and widely used financial analysis ratio. Based on PG’s most recent quarterly gross profit of 47.38%, it has an excellent gross profit relative to its sector. In general, a higher gross margin is better, so a company should strive to have a gross margin that’s similar to or higher than its peers and industry average.