What is framework?
Update: IAS 39 Financial Instruments – Recognition and Measurement summary note
This article is a qualitative synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research investigating the flipped learning approach in engineering education. Systematic review was adopted as the research methodology and article selection and screening process are described. Articles published between 2000 and May 2015 were reviewed, and 62 articles were included for a detailed analysis and synthesis. The results indicated that flipped learning gained popularity amongst engineering educators after 2012. The review revealed that research in engineering education focused on documenting the design and development process and sharing preliminary findings and student feedback.
I find Maxwell’s research design book provides an useful overview for PhD students, chapter 1 and 3 are freely available via the publishers (please see attached). Chapter 3 in particular is useful as it covers the topic of conceptual framework, chapter 1 provides an useful overview. The conceptual framework, on the other hand, is something you can develop yourself based on this theory.
Therefore, the conceptual framework establishes the standard of core accounting practices and principles. The key objective for developing a conceptual framework is establishing new accounting standards. Besides its role as a theoretical framework, it also serves as a foundation for resolving accounting disagreements. Establishing conceptual framework is setting up of the fundamental standard codes.
What is the difference between an accounting standard and a conceptual framework of accounting?
The purpose of the Conceptual Framework is: to assist the IASB in the development of future accounting standards and in its review of existing accounting standards, ensuring consistency across standards.
Future research examining different facets of a flipped learning implementation, framed around sound theoretical frameworks and evaluation methods, is still needed to establish the pedagogy of flipped learning in teaching engineering. The main reasons for improving a conceptual framework is setting new accounting standards. Other than a theoretical framework, it is the primary basis for resolving accounting disputes. Setting conceptual framework is establishing fundamental standard principles.
Preparing Financial Statements
If at conceptualize you need more than one theory/concept, then that research will have to integrate theories/concepts using both theoretical and empirical findings leading to a model/conceptual framework (Imelda, 2014). We need the two; constructs are conceptualized at the theoretical framework and variables are operationalized and measured at the conceptual framework. A conceptual framework that is not a theoretical framework, is presumptuous for one claiming to conduct serious deductive research, as it ignores past contributions to theory. A standard-setting federation develops a theory of accounting which is known as the conceptual framework. In simple terms, the conceptual framework can be defined as an array of objectives and principles which result in creation of a specific set of rules.
However, by definition, all aspects of the conceptual framework are used in the process of research. In a nutshell, conceptual framework lays down the nature, limitations, and different functions of financial accounting. It is due to these benefits that more and more students are choosing to study conceptual framework of accounting. The students have to write various assignments on the topic of conceptual framework as a part of their accounting course.
The Conceptual Framework can simply be regarded as the concrete idea or real analysis of the researcher based on the aim and objectives of the study. The theoretical framework provides a general representation of relationships between things in a given phenomenon. The conceptual framework, on the other hand, embodies the specific direction by which the research will have to be undertaken. Statistically speaking, the conceptual framework describes the relationship between specific variables identified in the study.
The two terms are most of the time used without specifically knowing which one is to be used when. Theoretical framework represents context of studies which are based on particular theories – testing them or explaining them – or models based studies in psychology. Whereas conceptual framework is comparatively broad term representing context of the concept that the study is based on – explaining how and in what sense these terms have been used in this particular study. These are very similar terms and as such there is hardly any difference between them.
Objectives of Accounting
Normally, a researcher will develop his or her conceptual framework underpinned on some theoretical frameworks that s/he has reviewed. Usually, without theoretical frameworks to support your conceptual framework, you might expose to questioning during article review / thesis viva examination. Theoretical frameworks are important as they serve as life-saver / base / float in which without them a conceptual framework might sink miserably.
- The TF is derived from theory and is critical in deductive theory-testing studies.
- A theoretical framework (TF) was define as “empirical or quasi-empirical theories of social/psychological processes which exist at a variety of different levels an apply to the understanding of phenomena” -Anfara & Mertz, 2006, p.xvii.
- Theoretical framework and conceptual framework; Leshem & Trafford 2007, Sinclair, 2007) uses them as synonyms while Maxwell, 2005, Miles & Huberman, 1994 takes them as the same, as they serve the same purpose.
Update: IASB Conceptual Framework summary note
The central idea of conceptual framework deals with fundamental financial reporting issues. Both theoretical and conceptual frameworks may be into each other, especially when the focus is on using theory to frame the study since theories always has and use field concepts. It is only Concepts that may exclude theory but theory may not be possible to excludes field concepts.
However, only the students who have a complete knowledge of all the principles and concepts can write good quality assignments. With many countries adopting the conceptual framework for accounting and financial purposes, it would be interesting to find out where and when did this concept originate.
The IASB Conceptual Framework
The need for developing a conceptual frame work arose as a result of the limitations in accounting and defective setting practice. The influences that come up at the individual level can render the entire process of standard-setting useless. The flipped learning approach has been growing in popularity in both higher education and K-12, especially for its potential to increase active learning and student engagement.
Theoretical framework and conceptual framework; Leshem & Trafford 2007, Sinclair, 2007) uses them as synonyms while Maxwell, 2005, Miles & Huberman, 1994 takes them as the same, as they serve the same purpose. A theoretical framework (TF) was define as “empirical or quasi-empirical theories of social/psychological processes which exist at a variety of different levels an apply to the understanding of phenomena” -Anfara & Mertz, 2006, p.xvii. The TF is derived from theory and is critical in deductive theory-testing studies. A conceptual framework (CF) “explains either graphically, or in narrative form, the main things to be studied-the key factors, concepts or variables -and the presumed relationship among them”-Miles & Huberman, 1994, p18. The CF is is derived from concepts Critical in inductive theory building exploratory studies.
Collaborative technologies such as Google Docs, Google Classroom and Edmodo were particularly linked to engagement, with videos not created by teachers more likely to lead to disengagement. Only 12% included a definition of student engagement, and less than half used a theoretical framework. Further research is needed on parent, teacher and school leader perceptions, as well as longitudinal and multiple-class studies. This narrative systematic review synthesises literature published between , focused on the flipped learning approach in K-12 contexts, and indexed in 7 international databases. Theoretical framework refers to previous theories, frameworks, models that you were reviewing during literature review.
What is the purpose of conceptual framework in accounting?
A conceptual framework can be defined as a system of ideas and objectives that lead to the creation of a consistent set of rules and standards. Specifically in accounting, the rule and standards set the the nature, function and limits of financial accounting and financial statements.
You inevitably would use some –if not all– concept that this particular theory operates with. In addition, in your conceptual framework you can add your own concept / constructs / variables that you think are relevant and then proceed to explore or test the relationship between them. The difference between theoretical and conceptual frameworks is scale — referring to the Big Ideas and the smaller ones. The conceptual framework is a set of specific ideas that can be used within the larger theoretical framework. A theoretical framework may contain many ideas that are not explored within the paper or experiment it structures.
However, further research is needed to understand exactly how the flipped approach enhances student engagement. This narrative systematic review synthesises literature published between 2012 and 2018, focused on the flipped learning approach in K-12 contexts, and indexed in 7 international databases. 107 articles, book chapters, dissertations, conference papers and grey literature were included for review, and the results are discussed against a bioecological model of student engagement.
Overall researchers tend to adopt one of the terms and then stick to that term throughout their work. Therefore you would not use these terms interchangeably, neither would you have both a conceptual AND theoretical framework within your study.