# What is the Cost of Sales? Formula and Calculation

By contrast, fixed costs such as managerial salaries, rent, and utilities are not included in COGS. Inventory is a particularly important component of COGS, and accounting rules permit several different approaches for how to include it in the calculation. The beginning inventory includes all of the products, raw materials and any other supplies for your goods that you already have at the beginning of the year (normally the new fiscal year). The beginning inventory is calculated by multiplying the number of units available at the start of the year with the price per unit that was applicable when these items were bought. Cost of sales, also referred to as the cost of goods sold (COGS), represents the direct costs related to the manufacturing of goods/services that are sold to your customers.

1. Let us take the example of another company to understand the concept of cost of sales in further detail.
2. This means that the inventory value recorded under current assets is the ending inventory.
3. During periods of rising prices, goods with higher costs are sold first, leading to a higher COGS amount.
4. In practice, however, companies often don’t know exactly which units of inventory were sold.
5. At the end of each quarter or time period, use your accounting software or the cost of goods sold formula above to calculate COGS.

As revenue increases, more resources are required to produce the goods or service. COGS is often the second line item appearing on the income statement, coming right after sales revenue. To benchmark, businesses should look at their COGS for a specific time period (a day, a quarter, a year, etc.) and compare it to a different time period of the same length to see how sales changed. During periods of rising prices, goods with higher costs are sold first, leading to a higher COGS amount.

At the end of each quarter or time period, use your accounting software or the cost of goods sold formula above to calculate COGS. Re-verify your goods purchased, goods sold, and current inventory in order to look for loss or theft. Cost of goods sold is the direct cost of producing a good, which includes the cost of the materials and labor used to create the good. COGS directly impacts a company’s profits as COGS is subtracted from revenue. If a company can reduce its COGS through better deals with suppliers or through more efficiency in the production process, it can be more profitable. Examples of pure service companies include accounting firms, law offices, real estate appraisers, business consultants, professional dancers, etc.

Because COGS is a cost of doing business, it is recorded as a business expense on income statements. Knowing the cost of goods sold helps analysts, investors, and managers estimate a company’s bottom line. While this movement is beneficial for income tax purposes, the business will have less profit for its shareholders.

## Cost of Sales Formula

The final number derived from the calculation is the cost of goods sold for the year. Cost of sales, sometimes known as cost of goods sold (COGS), is simply the cost involved in directly producing the goods or services that you actually sell. It’s important that you track the costs to ensure that you’re always profitable. For example, assume that a company purchased materials to produce four units of their goods. COGS does not include general selling expenses, such as management salaries and advertising expenses.

Take the time to run not only a cost analysis but also an analysis of how this could impact the image of your business as a whole. Since COGS is so crucial to your business, making efforts to optimize it can pay off in many ways. Here are a few of our recommendations for controlling your cost of goods sold. To calculate your COGS number without running sums by hand, use a cost of goods sold calculator.

## Cost of Goods Sold Template

Cost of sales doesn’t include selling, general, and administrative (SG&A) expenses, while it also leaves interest expenses out of the equation. In short, cost of sales is a very important financial performance metric, as it tracks your ability to manufacture/deliver goods and services at a reasonable cost. If you have imported raw materials from another country, you would also need to add the freight or shipping costs to the purchase cost. In theory, COGS should include the cost of all inventory that was sold during the accounting period. In practice, however, companies often don’t know exactly which units of inventory were sold.

IFRS and US GAAP allow different policies for accounting for inventory and cost of goods sold. Very briefly, there are four main valuation methods  for inventory and cost of goods sold. Multi-entity accounting is an essential financial approach for businesses with multiple entities across different locations.

## Cost of Goods Sold Formula for Manufacturers

COGS is a business and sales metric that determines the value of inventory sold (and created, if you’re the manufacturer) in a specific time. The formula looks at all costs directly related to your inventory, including raw materials, transportation, storage, and direct labor for manufacturers. The cost of sales is more than just including the costs of raw materials or the resources that are used up in manufacturing the product. Along with this, the import costs for parts and materials, as well as the costs involved in marketing or selling the product are included in calculating the cost of goods sold. The cost of sales or cost of goods sold (COGS) is the total direct costs involved in making a product or service ready for being sold. The cost of sales determines how much each unit of a product costs to the business, and helps them calculate the the gross profit and margin from the revenue you’ve generated.

## Presentation of the Cost of Sales

Specific identification is special in that this is only used by organizations with specifically identifiable inventory. Costs can be directly attributed and are specifically assigned to the specific unit sold. This type of COGS accounting may apply to car manufacturers, real estate developers, and others. This formula is used by businesses of various industries all over the world to determine the cost of goods sold. Some companies also have their own hybrid formulas that are based on the changes in their inventory. Cost of sales is one of the most important performance metrics to get a handle on, particularly if your business is goods-based.

Since prices tend to go up over time, a company that uses the FIFO method will sell its least expensive products first, which translates to a lower COGS than the COGS recorded under LIFO. The cost of sales is the accumulated total of all costs used to create a product or service, which has been sold. The cost of sales is a key part of the performance metrics of a company, since it measures the ability of an entity to design, source, and manufacture goods at a reasonable cost. Now that we have gone through what the cost of sales is, what is included in it, and the formula for it, it is also important to understand how it’s actually calculated. If you have a look at the formula shared in the previous section, there are numerous variables involved that affect the overall cost.

If you’re able to do this, you can lower the cost of this inventory and keep the price to your customers the same, resulting in more profit for you and no difference in price or quality for customers. This means the manufacturer’s total number of backpacks sold during this month cost \$1,200,000 to produce. At the end of the month, the company has a remaining inventory of backpacks that cost \$500,000 to make.